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In particular, these recent studies consider the role of fertilizer and fuel, and livestock, which are the major sources of GHG emissions from dairy farms. The fertilizer and fuel components capture GHG emissions from the feed production and processing stages, whereas the livestock component accounts for emissions from the digestive process and manure decomposition in dairy operations.


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As such, they account for a sizeable portion of GHGs originating from the dairy farms. In short, economic research finds evidence that the cost of environmental regulatory interventions aimed at reducing GHG emissions would vary considerably, by farm size and by region, across the United States. In particular, there is evidence that the average dairy farm in the Midwest and the East, which tend to be smaller than their counterparts in the Pacific, Mountain and the Southwest, would find abatement of GHGs relatively more expensive.

Similarly, larger farms within the Northeast would experience cost advantages in GHG abatement due to economies of scale. Nevertheless, these cost advantages may dissipate due to the multiplicity of Federal and State regulations, such as the CAFO requirements.

The survival of the dairy industry is critical given the role that dairy farms play in generating household earnings, preserving rural landscapes, heritage values, and open spaces. Research suggests that policy makers should consider carefully the cost-effectiveness of policies designed to curtail emissions from dairy farms before implementation.

EPA's Endangerment Finding for Aircraft Emissions: How Should the Airline Industry Respond

Imposing a command-and-control approach is both inflexible and costly, and will only exacerbate losses to some regions and farms in the country. On the other hand, a cap-and-trade regime may result in unequal benefits because large dairy farms, compared with their small counterparts, enjoy cost advantages. In addition, recent research results suggest that policy interventions should be directed towards assistance programs such as direct subsidies, cost sharing of digesters, loan guarantees, tax exemptions, and accelerated depreciation.

Other mechanisms include a carbon-offset system that compensates dairy operations for CO 2 reductions.

The EPA’s Elusive Climate Change Endangerment Report | Union of Concerned Scientists

Finally, promoting renewable energy and supporting voluntary mechanisms that encourage the widespread adoption of anaerobic digesters could be viable options Mukherjee et al. Anaerobic digester technologies are good for the environment because they transform methane that would have otherwise escaped to the atmosphere. Though digester systems have multiple benefits, they have not been widely adopted in the United States because of their relatively high costs Bishop and Shumway, Furthermore, the high financial outlays required to install digester systems makes this technology suitable for larger operations because of pronounced economies of scale in both their construction and maintenance Key and Sneeringer, Attention should also be given to centralized anaerobic digesters CADs , which can make this technology economically viable to groups of small-scale dairy farms by pooling resources Mukherjee et al.

These proposals could go a long way in enhancing the long-term viability of both small and large dairy operations in the United States, while slowing down the shift towards fewer and larger farms. Batie, S. Deschenes, O. Fernandez, C. Koop, and M. Gerber, P. Steinfeld, B. Henderson, A. Mottet, C. Opio, J. Dijkman, A. Falcucci, and G.

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Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. Johnston, R. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Key, N. Malcolm, S. Marshall, M.

A Slow Policy Response: Authority and Facts

Aillery, P. Heisey, M. Livingston, and K. Department of Agriculture. MacDonald, J.

Frequently Asked Questions

McBride, and E. Mendelsohn, R.

maisonducalvet.com/adra-dating-site.php Nordhaus, and D. Mosheim, R. Dairy Farms. Mukherjee, D. Cromley, F. Shah, and B. Njuki, E. Bravo-Ureta, and D. Dairy Farming. Reinhard, S. Lovell, and G. Schlenker, W.


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    Tietenberg, T. Climate Change Program Office. Washington D. Shell, on the other hand, said it generally supports the Obama-era regulation and has its own plans to reduce its methane emissions. Exxon Mobil similarly said it "will continue to urge the EPA to retain the main features of the existing methane rule. Environmental and public health groups slammed the proposal. The American Lung Association said it "strongly opposes" it. The Environmental Working Group called the plan "an anti-science, anti-health proposal that will make the climate crisis worse.

    In the first two decades after its release, methane is 84 times more potent than carbon dioxide, according to the Environmental Defense Fund. Methane is at first much more dangerous than carbon dioxide when it comes to the climate because of how effectively it absorbs heat. Once the EPA's new proposal is published in the Federal Register, there is a day window for public comment and a public hearing will be held.

    The Wall Street Journal, which published an interview with the EPA official announcing the proposal, reported the agency intends to finalize the methane emission rule by The agency said it also plans to finalize a related methane rule "in the upcoming months. President Donald Trump, who previously called climate change a hoax, withdrew the US in from the Paris climate accord, which aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    Earlier this week, the President skipped a climate change session at the G7 meeting in France, citing a scheduling conflict.