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As we ascend, we the dross we carry drops away - dross from our past lives that weigh us down, dross from our ancestral memory that weighs us down, and ancient grief that keeps us down. We carry so much within us that we don't have to. In the release of all this dross, our vibration rises, our consciousness rises, and we ascend.

In our ascension, we come more into our heart and into joy. You will become a Master like me, and you will have others come and stand by you, they too a supernova of love and joy, and the world will change to a state of love and joy. It starts with you.

This is your time. Waireti and I can see change coming. We can see ascension being attained by so many. A world where everyone has a supernova heart - sounds like world peace to me. But ever a practical person, the question is how? Well, explore this site. These are the times of ascension. It is time for each individual to hear their own inner call, not the call of the Masters or the call of anyone other than their own Higher Self saying, "This is our time.

Waireti and I have passed the 5th initiation, and we know the techniques, oils, healings, etc. We are seeing them work successfully on clearing the dross on others, and we are seeing others raise their vibration and pass the 5th initiation. I had someone refer to me as a guru. Be in your own power and be master of your own ascension. Follow the path you choose, and take the time you choose. We merely offer some support tools for your journey. Blessings on your journey. If you spend some time with us, we will honour that brief connection and hope in time you get to stand beside the Masters, your hearts a supernova of love and joy.

Healing day this week was rather special. The portal was a beautiful orange. I took the plus photos with me to the healing temple, and before me was a lotus. As I presented each person to Ganesh, they were placed in the lotus. The lotus started to spin, and they were spun off to one of the waiting healing Masters via one of the petals.

I felt it was quite a sacred healing day. I hope those of you who participated in the weekly Tuesday healing from your part of the world enjoyed Cha Ara. Cha Ara is a 5th ray Master and looks about He is middle eastern in appearance for skin and hair colour. His hair is about three inches all over. He wanted me to see his nose, so he stood in profile and I saw his nose is quite wide and has a droopy tip. He is full of energy and lots of fun. He quite likes himself. He was wearing a leather jacket, but I have seen him before in red Ali Baba pants and a white shirt. There are no rules that they have to wear the same clothes all the time.

Waireti tells me she has seen him in a fez hat as well. He is proving to be a wonderful Master for Ascension. We will, we are just waiting on deeper teachings from the Masters. Look for an article or blog posting in the future. The Masters are teaching more on the 4 th Ray these last few weeks. The 4th ray is the nexus of the rays. All the rays are equal, there is none higher or lower than the other. The 4th ray the white ray is the ray of harmony through conflict. The 4th ray is the hardest ray to be born on, as your soul purpose is to be the nexus of conflict.

People on the 4th ray often feel they attract conflict - and they do - it is their soul purpose to create harmony in the conflict and be a mirror and teacher for all the other rays. The sad part of this ray is that the 4th ray soul often goes into victim mode and also finds it hard to let go of the pain and suffering they themselves incur from the conflict. Then they can begin to find their own personal power and strength and detach themselves from the situation.

So, if you have negative thoughts or relationships with a 4th ray soul, stop and look at what you are there to learn, and give thanks for the service they perform for humanity in this life. The portal is expanding again, moving further into other dimensions. Waireti and I have again been recalibrated to keep up with the changes that are occurring. Waireti presented the people stepping forward for healing this week.

The Masters have been teaching more on the various rays. As many of you know, the 6th ray is the ray of the goddess the ruby, purple, and gold ray. Those of you on the 6th ray in this life are following the teachings and path of the goddess, not an external goddess, but the goddess within.

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To balance this ray, the 1st ray the blue and red ray is the path of the god, God's will and power. This can mean the divine god within and the will and power of a supreme being. We will keep it small in balance with the goddess energy for now. The first ray also has a feminine aspect - the red ray. The red ray is a small aspect of the ray; we have yet to witness it as a soul ray colour and to date have only seen it as a colour with the physical body ray. The only Master we have seen with the red aspect of the first ray is the goddess Sitatapatra.

She is an ancient goddess. She walked with Gautama Buddha as his soul ray teacher. So, we can assume he had a red soul ray and walked on the goddess aspect of the first ray. All assumptions though. Yet we have found many of the young ones being born today are 1st ray souls on the blue masculine aspect ray of God's will and power. We see their lovely blue soul rays and know this to be true. As I say, we are always learning. Just to confuse everything again, the 3rd ray is the ray of the Divine Mother and unconditional love - hence many goddesses are on this 3rd ray, not on the 6th.

Another article waiting to come into fruition. In my entry last week, I mentioned Sitatapatra, a first ray goddess. She is on the red aspect of the 1st ray the feminine aspect of the 1st ray. Most first ray souls are on the blue aspect. I was saying last week we have never seen a person with a red soul ray not ruby, but red. Well, of course, the Masters had to deliver, and this week we saw our first red soul ray.

As we were discussing this person's red soul ray, Sitatapatra appeared to Waireti and me in the kitchen. Sitatapatra put all conversation to a stop and claimed this person with the red soul ray as her chela student. What fun to have a goddess with a parasol in the kitchen.

Waireti is taking on more healing work here at the portal. The Masters have asked her to take on astral body healings, a task she is very suited to, as she can see the astral body and what it contains. Four Masters will be doing the healing with Waireti as a facilitator. The Master's change with each person, so four Masters will come in just for you. The Astral body is an interesting body and one we tend to ignore on our path to ascension.

Our astral body is really our dumping ground; every time we have a creative thought good or bad , it is stored in the astral. Every time we enter the astral plane, the memory of that visit is left in the astral body. All of these creations and visits to the astral are like little bits of grit that float around the astral body, some big and some small. So how do you know if you need an astral body healing?

Autistic children and adults spend a lot of time on the astral plane; they benefit from this healing.

The sessions with Waireti and the Masters can take up to an hour. So how will you feel after the session? Lighter, brighter, happier, and more joyous it seems. It's a nice healing. As a test subject, I can highly recommend it. I have more energy too. Nice, nice, nice! Healing day has come and gone again. Thank you, Master. I had two questions this week via email. From our place of ego, we judge. We all do it. Some of us strive not to, and others make a lifetime habit of it. Where we are on the spectrum really isn't of any importance, the end result is we judge and are judged. We all have our own belief systems.

The key is to respect these differences, respecting each person for where they are in their ascension process. On the flip side, it is a waste of time trying to validate who you are to others, for you will rarely be heard. The less dross and karma you have, the lighter and brighter you are in the world. And in turn, the world you live in mirrors back to you who you are. If you have ascended to a high level of light and have little karma and dross, then the world too is a place of light and beauty, and this is reflected back to you. Beautiful and perfect.

But for someone who has little light and much of their karma and dross still to clear, the world reflected back to them is a hard and dark place. So look at others in this light, knowing they live in a world reflecting their own karma and dross and have compassion for their path. Know the spark of God resides in them, just as in you. We are all at very different places on the ascension path, but that doesn't mean any being is more or less worthy of respect, compassion, and love. Bow to the god within them. Healing day again. Of the or so people receiving healing, each one had their soul ray Ascended Master teacher step forward to give the healing.

Rather lovely. So, healing occurred today around soul purpose. I think a few of you got a little push. There is a real excitement with the Masters as people actively start working toward their ascension. In the last century, about twenty people passed the 5th initiation. This decade will see so many more than that pass the 5th initiation. We have done it, and we know how to help. This whole website is geared towards helping you pass the 5th initiation.

Great for all those areas of stored pain and past life pain. The cream will transmute the dross from the cells. Waireti is seeing halos around those who passed the 5th initiation 6 to 9 months ago. The halos fluctuate between a torus-shaped gold ring at about 3rd eye level, to a translucent gold inverted fishbowl that covers the entire head to soul seat level. As usual, the article is original content with teachings from the Masters. Lord Ling appearing as Moses to communicate strength, focus, etc. But then to confuse the issue, Jesus only appears as Jesus, and that wasn't his last life.

Mary Magdalene only appears as Mary Magdalene, and that wasn't her last life. So, for some, it means appearing in a recognised form. They can change in that form too. Jesus can have dark hair or light brown hair, and they change clothes, etc. But their go-to is, "You will know us by our colours. Also, they are in the portal in their spirit form of just colour and energy for the most part.

Over the last year, we have been called upon to clear curses. Yes, curses do exist. They come in several forms. There are ancestral curses where the descendants of a certain person are cursed. The curse can also be of past life origin, so the curse follows a person or a group of people through their future lives. Waireti identifies the curse by how it looks in the aura.

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One group had an ivy like growth over them, stunting their development. Another group had helmets, again stunting their development. In all cases, the curse affects their quality of life. The Masters do remove group and individual curses. This Wednesday, Ganesh stepped forward for Healing day. He took everyone on the list for healing, unaided by a support team.

Ganesh was healing the inner scars that remain hidden from the world in all of those up for healing. Waireti and I travel to Auckland quite a bit, and we always pass by Angel mountain. Angel mountain is a hill that always has angelic hosts around it. This time going up, Waireti and I played a game guessing what ray the host of angels would come from. I said they would be orange 5 th ray but have a golden glow. No, I was wrong. There were about three hosts of 7th Ray violet energy angels and one single orange angel with a golden glow. Haha, a little sign to say they heard us.

Nice to know we are heard by the angels. I still smile and say thank you when I think of them. As you know, this site is about the Ascended Masters and how they can help us in our Ascension process. I've been asked, "I want to ascend in this lifetime. How can you help? What do I need to do? The path you choose to ascend by is totally up to you. The Masters have supplied some healings and oils that make the path easier for you without taking away your power in the process. First, Ascension is raising your vibration.

By raising your vibration, you are raising your consciousness. Sounds pretty simple. So how do you raise your vibration? We ascend through our chakras; our chakras hold the dross and karma of our past lives. We raise our vibration by clearing the dross from the chakras. As the dross is cleared, the karma is presented by the universe for payment. They have manifested the Violet Flame into the physical.

The Violet Flame Oil will help, even if you do and use nothing else. See all the other oils here. They also have healings. These healings will help raise the vibrancy light in your chakras and reduce the dross. This means there is no more dross and karma left to be cleared. Many of you are at the stage where your chakras are balanced and looking very good, and now all you need is updates on the level of radiance and vibrancy to see where you are in your ascension process.

For those of you not sure what I mean, radiance is the amount of light radiating from our chakras, and vibrancy is the amount of light in our chakras. We have new ones from Kuthumi and Melchizedek in stunning rutilated polished quartz. Healing this week was led by St. John the Baptist, along with Jesus and Hilarion. As I present each person, one of them would step forward and say mine, and everyone got divided up. I want to paraphrase and repeat a quote from Jesus: Men and women are just souls in different bodies.

At the end of the day, we are all souls — maybe this life as a woman, next life a man, back and forward, back and forward. A lot of our issues on many levels would then drop away. We have also been given a word: Support. We are here to support you in your ascension process. And now I want to share some feedback from a lady in Singapore regarding the Ascended Master portal cards. They really help me get through every day, and I do not know how I would have survived without them all these nights if not for them.

I can really feel the love of the masters through the cards very deeply, and I am super grateful for them. The colours and designs feel very ethereal and are such a great joy and beauty to look at. I love having the whole pack with me, as the different masters speak to me at different times. The cards are such a brilliant creation. Well, the Masters created the portal paintings. I have two crown chakras, one is mine and the other crown chakra belongs to the Ascended Masters.

This allows them to bypass Verna and work as if in body. Waireti said when the Masters were painting these portal paintings, I left my body and the Masters took over, though to me I was still here observing. So, having a portal card is having a doorway for the Master to come closer into this physical reality. Another week has flown by. As I stood in the portal today, I felt such gratitude to the Masters and the work they do.

Waireti presented those receiving free healing today to the Masters. It was a great day to be receiving healing. Yesterday afternoon I was in the city and witnessed a car accident at an intersection. The accident itself wasn't bad, but what surprised me was the hoard of negative entities around the scene. Waireti was with me, and we both expressed how the entity population in the world had nearly doubled in the last six months.

Waireti feels it has something to do with , perhaps a doorway opened for them. We then felt we had to find out more, so we called in what we call the A-team: Archangel Michael, Amen Bey, and Ptah the protector Masters. A doubling in entity numbers is huge. In the past, we saw people have one or two entities, now we are seeing three and four entities with people. And these people have no idea the entities are there. This is a silent war. How can you combat the enemy when you don't even know they exist? How much of that was caused by entities?

Just enough to disrupt the balanced flow, so connections aren't made, decisions aren't made, choices that would benefit you aren't made. All very subtle. Lightworkers have a great ability to feel nothing like this could happen to them, like that only happens to people of a lower vibration. Not true.

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The brighter your light, the more entities see you and want to divert you from your path. I wonder how many people stopped reading this entry when they knew it was about entities. I know many lightworkers who don't want to talk about the dark side. It's like the warriors putting their fingers in their ears and humming until the conversation gets changed. And while this happens, the dark side grows stronger. The wrong people are voted into power, health programs are ignored, and the world gets darker and darker instead of getting lighter.

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Over the last few weeks, Waireti and I have had many people come to see us, groups and individuals. They are like little suns in the darkness, and those around them are energetically dull in comparison. With the protection grid, the Masters remove the entities, heal any holes in the aura if there are entities or have been entities, there are holes and then create a grid of energy around your entire auric body that will keep you protected from negative energies. The grid is lifelong. What a diverse group, and yet they are all energetically in harmony with each other.

They are working as a unit in the portal today. They are sending healing to all women, healing around forgiveness of self and others. The energy they are working with is like stretching the energy, and in the stretching, change occurs. Yesterday we had Metatron come and visit.

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Waireti asked a sacred geometry question of Jesus the day before, and he said to wait and ask Metatron tomorrow. And sure enough, there he was. The only problem was, Waireti couldn't remember the question. These are lives we are living concurrently with this one. All of these lives are in different dimensions, some of those lives on this planet, some on others.

Many of you will be aware of your dimensional lives, either from dreams or higher awareness. The life you are experiencing now is linked to two other lives, but you can have several groups of three lives occurring at the same time. So if you have ten dimensional lives, then you have three groups of three and one life in which the other two lives of the trio are either yet to be born or have died.

When one dimensional life dies, the other in the trio follow within a year. You are linked to all your dimensional lives via your core star. Your core star is an energy centre between the solar plexus chakra and the heart chakra just beneath the breasts. We have an Ascended Master overseeing our dimensional lives; this is noted by the colour of the core star. We all have a Christ Light, our spark of God, our own personal god within. Our Christ Light then has a lower self, which is our Higher Self. The only purpose of the Christ Light is to return to its point of creation as a perfected being.

To become perfect, it utilises its lower self our Higher Self. The Higher Self, in turn, utilises the soul; it sends souls to various dimensions on many worlds to follow the cycle of rebirth and to ascend in consciousness and vibration. All these lives followed by a single Higher Self contribute to Ascension. One of these souls will pass the 5th initiation first and will leave the cycle of rebirth first. This single person then has a soul responsibility to assist in clearing all the karma of all its dimensional lives, whether in body or not. This is a very brief overview, and I'm sure many questions are raised.

I hope to follow up in the near future with an article on this topic. Other Masters popped in and out as needed as they chose. We have had a week of big Masters in the portal - Metatron, Osiris, Cha Ara, Sitatapatra, Amaryllis the goddess of spring, and Amaterasu goddess of the sun. They come in for a while, worked, and left. St Germain has been his usual self, our constant Master in the portal.

He has filled our days with smiles and laughter. Thomas Merton led the healing session. Those of you who read this diary know that Thomas is one of the newer Ascended Masters. Thomas is my go-to here at the portal when I want to understand something that is happening. Thomas Merton was a mystic and an intellectual. He wrote many well-received books during his lifetime as a Trappist monk at the Abbey of Gethsemane in Kentucky, America.

The best known is Seven Story Mountain. His books on spirituality and social justice drew in a wide range of supporters, one being the Dalai Lama. In his later years, he became a recluse in the monastery, giving more of his life in devotion to God. He died in His aura is a light blue centre, fading out to a mid-blue with a violet overlay on the outer blue. The power of the first ray is very evident in his energy. His innate inner power is needed in this position, as he mixes with some of the vast Cosmic Beings who work in the portal.

Live in the now and let go of what has gone. It can't be changed. This often means letting go of the past story. The story has a hook that will keep you in the past. Let it go and see the joys and beauty around you in the now. Initiations are part of ascension; they are achievement points. While in body, there are five initiations. You might like to think of them as five mountains, each one higher than the other. Each initiation is a marker of the achievements you have made in your ascension process.

They cannot be determined by terms like nice, knowledgeable, kind, cruel, rude, good - these are just personality traits and lifetime conditionings. Though the higher you go, there is a sifting of traits, and polar opposites are noted between light and dark. Much has been written about ascension, but the simple version of it comes down to the amount of light in the chakras and how far the light is radiating out. Light has nothing to do with personality, so don't be quick to slot some people into initiations based on criteria other than Light. The inverse of light is karma.

Of course, these figures can change according to the chakra, but all seven chakras must pass the threshold for the initiation to be passed. The 1st and 2nd initiations occur over thousands of lifetimes. Once the 3rd initiation is passed, the 4th and 5th initiation can be passed in the same life if the person applies themselves, otherwise, they oscillate up and down in karma and light. These milestones may slip by unnoticed. She is still there kneeling in prayer; she has not moved. I'm told she is praying for peace throughout the world.

Healing day on Wednesday was with Jesus and the other 2nd ray Masters. The portal was awash in their yellow auras. We have been asked what a halo signifies. A halo presents on those who have passed the 5th initiation and have ascended to the new chakra system above the head 8th chakra and above. The halo signifies Humility — an attributes that needs to be achieved at the 5th. We are frequently asked about specific Masters and All the Masters. It's a bit like asking us to list a phone book. There are many, many Masters.

Some choose to have a connection with humanity and their ascension these are the ones we work with , but there are many, many more who follow other paths. Mother Mary spent ten days kneeling in prayer for Peace. She has now risen from prayer.

She is such a beautiful Master, a Master of unconditional love. He wore an energetic dark blue cape which is unusual for him. The other healing Masters were El Morya, St. John the Baptist, and Thomas Merton. The topic of teacher and student has come up several times over the last few weeks. As many of you know, I have two crown chakras and one is utilised by the Ascended Masters. This same topic arose last year, and the Masters had something to say. To paraphrase, we are all on the path of ascension, teacher, and pupil. In reality, we are all students, and we all have much to learn.

Many of you are spiritual teachers, helping and guiding the emerging souls into their ascension. This is a beautiful service many of you perform. A supposed newbie may not consciously know all that a teacher knows; in reality, they are just touching base with one of their many teachers as they awaken to their full divine potential.

So, if you are one of these teachers, please don't feel hurt as they move on, but give thanks that you could serve these beautiful beings of light as they race towards their true selves. Your turn will come. And those of you who are racing from teacher to teacher, give thanks to each of them for the service they perform for you and don't think less of them for the path they choose. There are many ways to ascension - love and respect all. Ascension is not a competition. Today is healing day again. It was a day when a Master representative of each ray was part of the healing team.

Germain 7th ray , and White Tara 8th ray. Just beautiful. The sound is assisting in breaking apart the dross residing in the astral body. Waireti is working on a Sleep spray. So many of us have difficulty sleeping, myself included. She asks for five volunteers to try her spray and give her feedback. Waireti asked me to put a note to the last entry in the diary - she has enough people for her sleep spray trials.

Sleep is an important part of ascension. Sleep for many lightworkers is the time in which we are taught, when we work as healers and teachers, and when we work through our life issues. In i, u. In Diphthong. The Plural in the Third and Fourth Declension. Fourth Declension.. Fourth Declension Paradigm.. In Occlusive, m, l In r, n, s.

The Plural in the Fourth Declension. Variable Nouns. Inflection Types. Excursus: Nominal Accent-Ablaut Patterns. Number Developments: The Dual. Inflection of Adjectives. The Motion.. Adjective Specialisation.. Comparison of Adjectives. Classification of Numerals. Cardinals and Ordinals. Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals. Numeral Adverbs. About the Pronouns. Personal Pronouns. Reflexive Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns. Anaphoric Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. Relative Pronouns. Other Pronouns.

Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number. Tenses of the Finite Verb. Forms of the Verb.. The Verbal Stems. The Thematic Vowel The Conjugations. The Four Stems. Tense-Stems and Verb Derivation. The Present Stem.. The Aorist Stem.. The Perfect Stem.. Mood Stems. Noun and Adjective Forms. Conjugated Examples. Thematic Verbs. Athematic Inflection. Common PIE Stems. Verbal Composition.. The Verbal Accent. Derivation of Adverbs. Verbal Morphosyntax..

Tense-Aspect and Mood. Nominal Morphosyntax.. Instrumental Case Forms: Adverbial Elements. Sentence Syntax The Sentence.. Kinds of Sentences. Nominal Sentence. Verbal Sentence. Sentence Modifiers. Intonation Patterns. Sentence Delimiting Particles. Verbal Modifiers. Declarative Sentences. Interrogative Sentences. Negative Sentences. Nominal Modifiers. Adjective and Genitive Constructions. Determiners in Nominal Phrases.

Subordinate Clauses. Syntactic Categories. Particles as Syntactic Means of Expression. Marked Order in Sentences. Topicalisation with Reference to Emphasis. Phrase and Sentence Prosody. Names of persons. Appendix I: Indo-European in Use Komtloqjom Conversation. The New Testament in Indo-European.. The Rigveda in Indo-European.. Formal Aspects. English — Late Indo-European..

Late Indo-European — English.. Etymology From Descendant Languages. Root Nouns. Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Personal Pronouns. Indefinite Pronouns. Bibliography and Further Reading Online Resources. Images and maps. Biography ………………………………………………. In this newer edition of our Grammar, we follow the first intention of this work, trying not to include personal opinions, but a collection of the latest, most reasoned academic papers on the latest reconstructible PIE, providing everything that might be useful for the teaching and learning of Indo-European as a living language.

With that aim in mind, and with our compromise to follow the scientific method, we have revised the whole text in search for out-dated material and unexplained forms, as well as inconsistencies in reconstructions or conventions. We have also restricted the amount of marginal choices in favour of the general agreement, so that we could offer a clear, sober, and commonly agreed manual to learn Indo-European.

Morphology and syntax remain thus nearest to the older IE languages attested, always compared to Anatolian material, but avoiding the temporal inconsistencies that are found throughout the diachronic reconstructions in other, current manuals. Once established the existence of the three-staged IE, a lot must still be done.

We have to define the detail, and we must explain the reason for the evolution, which formal elements does PIE deal with, and how they are ascribed to the new functions and categories. These developments shall influence the history of individual languages, which will have to be rewritten. Ancient Greek phonetics, for example, is known through internal as well as external reconstruction, and the actual state of the art is largely based on the body of evidence discussed extensively by linguists and philologists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, with lots of questions unsolved.

Furthermore, Ancient Greek is not one language; in fact, there are many dialects, each with different periods, and different representations of their sounds, all of which account for what we know with the unitary name Ancient Greek. Another example is Sanskrit, retained as different historical linguistic stages and dialects through oral tradition. Its first writings and grammatical rules were laid down centuries after it had ceased to be spoken, and centuries earlier before it became the classical Indian language.

Latin is indeed not different from the above examples, being systematised in the so-called classical period, while a real, dialectally and temporarily variable Vulgar Latin was used by the different peoples who lived in the Roman Empire, making e. The interest in the study and use of Indo-European as a living language today is equivalent to the interest in the study and use of these ancient languages as learned languages in the the Byzantine Empire, India and Mediaeval Europe, respectively.

With regard to certainty in reconstruction, Late Indo-European early dialects are not less natural than these classical languages were in the past. Even modern languages, like English, are to a great extent learned languages, in which social trends and linguistic artifices are constantly dividing between formal and colloquial , educated and uneducated , often simply good or bad usage of the language.

The notion of the death of a language remains thus in an unclear realm between academia and public opinion. Such a situation may well strike the Western reader as paradoxical. Our nearest parallel is in the position of Latin in Medieval Europe. There is, however, an important difference.

Few would deny Cicero or Vergil a greater importance in Latin literature than any mediaeval author. On this point it may be useful to make a twofold distinction — between a living and a dead language, and between a natural and a learned one. A language is natural when it is acquired and used instinctively; it is living when people choose to converse and formulate ideas in it in preference to any other.

To the modern Western scholar Sanskrit is a dead as well as a learned language. But when a learned language such as literary English is closely tied to, and constantly revitalized by, a natural idiom, its opportunities for independent growth are limited. Sanskrit provides a fascinating example of a language developing in complete freedom from such constraints as an instrument of intellectual and artistic expression. It is precisely the fact that Sanskrit writers insisted on using Sanskrit as a living and not as a dead language that has often troubled Western scholars.

To do so explicitly and incontrovertibly would be difficult in any language, given several ways of expressing the same idea and various other ways of expressing closely similar ideas. Badajoz , April CA: Common Anatolian. IE: Indo-European. OSV: object-subject-verb order. OV: object-verb order. PAn: Proto-Anatolian. SOV: subject-object-verb order. SVO: subject-verb-object order. VO: verb-object order. VP: verb phrase. VSO: verb-subject-object order. All linguistic forms are written in italics. When representing word schemes:. Citation: parenthetical referencing of author-date is used for frequently cited books referenced in the Bibliography , and author-title for articles and other books.

But without her this never would have been written. Without his deep knowledge of Ancient Greek and Latin, as well as his interest in the most recent research in IE studies, this grammar would have been unthinkable. I have received the invaluable support of many colleagues and friends from the University of Extremadura UEx , since we began publishing this book half a decade ago. The University has been crucial to this enterprise: first in when Prof.

Over the years I have also received feed-back from informed end-users, as well as from friends and members of the Indo-European Language Association, who were in the best position to judge such matters as the intelligibility and consistency of the whole. The influence of the work of many recent scholars is evident on these pages. Those who are most often cited include in alphabetical order : D. Adams, F. Adrados David Anthony, R. Fortson, Matthias Fritz, T. Lehmann, J. Sihler, Sergei Starostin, J.

This work is intended for language learners, and is not conceived as a defence of personal research. Excerpts of texts from many different sources have been copied literally, especially regarding controversial or untreated aspects. We feel that, whereas the field of Indo-European studies is indeed mature, and knowledge is out there to be grasped, we lack a comprehensive summary of the available consensual theories, scattered over innumerable specialised personal books and articles. We must begin this work by clearly exposing our intended working method in selecting and summing up the current available theories: it is basically, as it is commonly accepted today for PIE reconstruction, the comparative method, with the help of internal reconstruction.

If then the results are coincident, or compatible, or might be perfected with those obtained by archaeologists, so much the better. But a mixed method creates all types of chain mistakes and arbitrary results. We have seen that many times. And a purely archaeological method like the one supported lately by Renfrew or, in certain moments, the same Gimbutas , clashes with the results of Linguistics. The method has to rely on [the comparative method and internal reconstruction]. We have already expressed our mistrust in the results based on typological comparisons with remote languages glottalic theory, ergative, etc.

Now they are more frequent in books like Gamkelidze-Ivanov And fundamentally lexical comparisons should not be the first argument in comparisons, either. We do not doubt their interest in certain moments, e. And they could have interest in different comparisons: with Uralo-Altaic languages, Semitic, Caucasic, Summerian, etc. The guidelines that should be followed, as summarised by Beekes :. Collect all material that is relevant to the problem.

Try to look at the problem in the widest possible contact, thus in relation to everything else that may be connected with it. Assume that corresponding forms, that is to say, forms whose meaning probably and whose structures probably seem to be alike, all derive from one common ancestor. The question of how deviant forms should be evaluated is a difficult one to answer. When such a form can be seen as an innovation within a particular language or group of languages , the solution is that the form in question is young and as such cannot be important for the reconstruction of the original form.

Whenever a deviant form resists explanation it becomes necessary to consider the possibility that the very form in question may be one that preserves the original. For every solution the assumed new sound-laws must be phonetically probable, and the analogies must be plausible. The reconstructed system must be probable typological probability. If one should reconstruct a system which is found nowhere else in any of the known languages, there will always be, to say the least, reasons for doubt. On the other hand, every language is unique, and there is thus always the possibility that something entirely unknown must be reconstructed.

Authority vs. It is through observation that science is carried forward — not through uncritically accepting the authority of academic or scholastic sources. Observable reality is our only authority. But authority should be questioned whenever it is needed. Authority — be it the view of the majority, or the opinion of a renowned linguist or linguistic school — do not mean anything, and ideas are not to be respected because of who supports or supported them.

Verification and Disproof. What is rationally true is the only authority. On hypothesis testing in science, decisions are usually made using a statistical null-hypothesis test approach. Regarding linguistics and its comparative method, sometimes authority is placed as null hypothesis or H 0 as in many non-experimental sciences , while counter-arguments must take the H 1 position, and are therefore at disadvantage against the authority view.

This summary is misleading, however, since the principle is actually focussed on shifting the burden of proof in discussions. That is, the Razor is a principle that suggests we should tend towards simpler theories until we can trade some simplicity for increased explanatory power. Contrary to the popular summary, the simplest available theory is sometimes a less accurate explanation.

As an example of the applicability of the scientific method, we will take two difficult aspects of PIE reconstructions: the series of velars and the loss of laryngeals. PIE phonetic reconstruction is tied to the past: acceptance of three series of velars in PIE is still widespread today. Direct comparison in early IE studies, informed by the centum - satem isogloss, yielded the reconstruction of three rows of dorsal consonants in Late Indo-European by Bezzenberger Die indogermanischer Gutturalreihen , , a theory which became classic after Brugmann included it in the 2 nd Edition of his Grundriss.

It was based on vocabulary comparison: so e. The reasoning for reconstructing three series was very simple : an easy and straightforward solution for the parent PIE language must be that it had all three rows found in the proto-languages, which would have merged into two rows depending on their dialectal centum vs. Also, for a long time this division was identified with an old dialectal division within IE, especially because both groups appeared not to overlap geographically: the centum branches were to the west of satem languages.

Many Indo-Europeanists still keep a distinction of three distinct series of velars for Late Indo-European and also for Indo-Hittite , although research tend to show that the palatovelar series were a late phonetic development of certain satem dialects, later extended to others. There is a general trend to reconstruct labiovelars and plain velars, so that the hypothesis of two series of velars is usually identified with this theory.

Still less acceptance had the proposal to reconstruct only a labiovelar and a palatal series Magnusson. Arguments in favour of only two series of velars include:. In most circumstances palatovelars appear to be allophones resulting from the neutralisation of the other two series in particular phonetic circumstances. Their dialectal articulation was probably constrained, either to an especial phonetic environment as Romance evolution of Latin k before e and i , either to the analogy of alternating phonetic forms.

However, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly what the circumstances of the allophony are, although it is generally accepted that neutralisation occurred after s and u , and often before r or a ; also apparently before m and n in some Baltic dialects. The original allophonic distinction was disturbed when the labiovelars were merged with the plain velars. This produced a new phonemic distinction between palatal and plain velars, with an unpredictable alternation between palatal and plain in related forms of some roots those from original plain velars but not others those from original labiovelars.

Subsequent analogical processes generalised either the plain or palatal consonant in all forms of a particular root. Those roots where the plain consonant was generalised are those traditionally reconstructed as having plain velars in the parent language, in contrast to palatovelars. The reconstructed palatovelars and plain velars appear mostly in complementary distributions, what supports their explanation as allophones of the same phonemes.

There is residual evidence of various sorts in satem languages of a former distinction between velar and labiovelar consonants:. This evidence shows that the labiovelar series was distinct from the plain velar series in LIE, and could not have been a secondary development in the centum languages. However, it says nothing about the palatovelar vs. When this debate initially arose, the concept of a phoneme and its historical emergence was not clearly understood, however, and as a result it was often claimed and sometimes is still claimed that evidence of three-way velar distinction in the history of a particular IE language indicates that this distinction must be reconstructed for the parent language.

This is theoretically unsound, as it overlooks the possibility of a secondary origin for a distinction. A trend of this kind is unparallelled and therefore typologically a priori unlikely although not impossible , and needs that other assumptions be made. The plain velar series is statistically rarer than the other two in a PIE lexicon reconstructed with three series; it appears in words entirely absent from affixes, and most of them are of a phonetic shape that could have inhibited palatalisation.

Common examples are:. Clackson Alternations between plain velars and palatals are common in a number of roots across different satem languages, where the same root appears with a palatal in some languages but a plain velar in others. This is consistent with the analogical generalisation of one or another consonant in an originally alternating paradigm, but difficult to explain otherwise:. There are different pairs of satemised and non-satemised velars found within the same language.

Examples include:. The number and periods of satemisation trends reconstructed for the different branches are not coincident. So for example Old Indian shows two stages,. In Slavic, three stages are found,. In most attested languages which present aspirates as a result of the so-called palatovelars, the palatalisation of other phonemes is also attested e.

The existence of satem languages like Armenian in the Balkans, a centum territory, and the presence of Tocharian, a centum dialect, in Central Asia, being probably a northern IE dialect. The traditional explanation of a three-way dorsal split requires that all centum languages share a common innovation that eliminated the palatovelar series, due to the a priori unlikely move of palatovelars to back consonants see above. Unlike for the satem languages, however, there is no evidence of any areal connection among the centum languages, and in fact there is evidence against such a connection — the centum languages are geographically noncontiguous.

Furthermore, if such an areal innovation happened, we would expect to see some dialect differences in its implementation cf. In fact, however, neither type of evidence exists, suggesting that there was never a palatovelar series in the centum languages. Evidence does exist for a distinct labiovelar series in the satem languages, though; see above. A system of two gutturals, velars and labiovelars, is a linguistic anomaly, isolated in the IE occlusive subsystem — there are no parallel oppositions b w -b , p w -p , t w -t , d w -d , etc.

Only one feature, their pronunciation with an accompanying rounding of the lips, helps distinguish them from each other. Such a system has been attested in some older IE languages. A system of three gutturals — palatovelars, velars and labiovelars —, with a threefold distinction isolated in the occlusive system, is still less likely. In the two-dorsal system, labiovelars turn velars before - u , and there are some neutralisation positions which help identify labiovelars and velars; also, in some contexts e. Both trends led eventually to centum and satem dialectalisation. Those who support the model of the threefold distinction in PIE cite evidence from Albanian Pedersen and Armenian Pisani , that they seem to treat plain velars differently from the labiovelars in at least some circumstances, as well as the fact that Luwian could have had distinct reflexes of all three series.

NOTE 1. It is disputed whether Albanian shows remains of two or three series cf. NOTE 2. So, the strongest argument in favour of the traditional three-way system is that the the distinction supposedly derived from Luwian findings must be reconstructed for the parent language. Newer trends to support the old assumptions include e. As it is clear from the development of the dorsal reconstruction, the theory that made the fewest assumptions was that an original Proto-Indo-European had two series of velars. These facts should have therefore shifted the burden of proof, already by the time Meillet rejected the proposal of three series; but the authority of Neogrammarians and well-established works of the last century, as well as traditional conventions, probably weighted and still weight more than reasons.

In view of this it is exceedingly doubtful whether three distinct series existed in Indo-European. The assumption of the third series has been a convenience for the theoreticians, but it is unlikely to correspond to historical fact. Furthermore, on examination, this assumption does not turn out to be as convenient as would be wished. Clearly a theory which leaves almost as many irregularities as it clears away is not very soundly established, and since these cases have to be explained as examples of dialect mixture in early Indo-European, it would appear simplest to apply the same theory to the rest.

The case for this is particularly strong when we remember that when false etymologies are removed, when allowance is made for suffix alternation, and when the possibility of loss of labialization in the vicinity of the vowel u is considered e. A reconstruction prior to the decipherment of Hittite and the study of Anatolian! Today, the reconstruction of consonantal sounds to explain what was reconstructed before as uncertain vocalic schwa indogermanicum or schwa primum is firmly accepted in IE studies in general, and there is a general agreement on where laryngeals should be reconstructed.

Even the number and quality of those laryngeals is today a field of common agreement, although alternative number of laryngeals and proposals for their actual phonemic value do actually exist. By post-LIE we assume a period of a Northern-Southern dialectal division and Southern dialectal split, in which the whole community remains still in contact, allowing the spread of innovations like a generalised vocalisation of the auxiliary vowel during the first migrations in the Kurgan framework, the assumed end of the LIE community.

The following developments should also be added:. It has been assumed that this group produced in Greek a z. There are multiple examples which do not fit in any dialectal scheme, though; changes of outputs from PIH reconstructed forms with resonants are found even within the same dialects. That solution accounts for all LIE variants found in the different branches, and within them. According to Nussbaum Sound law and analogy: papers in honor of Robert S. Hence, for the moment, we could assume that a South-East and a South-West IE dialects were already separated, but still closely related through a common Northern IE core, because the loss or, more exactly, the vocalic evolution of laryngeals of Northern IE did in fact reach Graeco-Aryan dialects similarly and in a complementary distribution.

That is supported by modern linguistic Northern-Southern separation model v. Some individual finds seem to support a different treatment of laryngeals in certain dialects and environments, though. It is not justified, though, that it must represent a sort of unwritten laryngeal, and not an effect of it, i.

In fact, it has long been recognised that the treatment of word-final laryngeals shows a strong tendency to disappear so e. They should then be considered — like the hiatuses or glottal stops found in Hom. The other irregular dialectal reconstructions shown are easily explained following the model of epenthetic vowel plus merged laryngeal or glottal stop? If the laryngeal loss had already occurred in PIIr.

D , a sister language of West and East Baltic languages, according to his view. However, for some linguists, the complete loss of the LIE laryngeal or even laryngeals must have happened independently in each dialectal branch attested; so e. The question is then brought by Clackson into the Maltese and Modern Hebrew examples, languages isolated from Semitic into an Indo-European environment for centuries. That is indeed a possible explanation: that all IE branches, after having split up from the LIE common language, would have become independently isolated, and then kept in close contact with or, following the Maltese example, surrounded by non-IE languages without laryngeals.

Then, every change in all branches could be explained by way of diachronic and irregular developments of vowel quality. Even accepting that typologically both models of a common, post-LIE vs. Therefore, we dispense with unnecessary hypotheses, offering the most conservative approach to the problem. We try to keep a consistent nomenclature throughout the book, when referring to the different reconstructible stages of Proto-Indo-European PIE. We do so by using the following schema of frequent terms and dates:. This is just a simplified summary to understand the following sections.

The dates include an archaeological terminus post quem , and a linguistic terminus ante quem. In such a huge time span we could differentiate between language periods. However, these linguistic and archaeological limits are usually difficult to define, and their differentiation hardly necessary in this grammar. The above graphic is intended to show stemmatic, as well as synchronic levels.

The reconstruction of North-West Indo-European is based on secondary materials: it is a level 3 proto-language, reconstructed on the basis of level 5 proto-languages of ca. Coeval level 3 dialects Proto-Greek from level 5 Mycenaean and level 6 Ancient Greek primary materials and Proto-Indo-Iranian from level 5 Old Indian and level 6 Iranian materials could be considered reconstructions based on primary as well as secondary materials. All of them, as well as data from other dialects Tocharian A and B, Armenian, Albanian , conform the secondary and tertiary materials used to reconstruct a level 2 Late Indo-European.

Proto-Anatolian is a level 2 internal reconstruction from level 3 Common Anatolian, in turn from level 4 and level 5 primary materials on Anatolian dialects. Each reconstructed parent level is, indeed, more uncertain and inconsistent than the previous one, because the older a material is even primary texts directly attested , the more uncertain the reconstructed language. And more so because all parent reconstructions are in turn helpful to refine and improve the reconstruction of daughter and sister proto-languages.

While not still a settled question v. Considerations of Method , we assume that the satem trend began as an areal dialectal development in South-East Indo-European, and spread later and incompletely through contact zones — e. Their mental states are so "heavy" that it takes A LOT of mental energy to "Drag them up" and more likely is being "Dragged down" into their insane mental state.

This I believe is why it's encouraged for Monks to look at the ground while walking, because careless eye contact which results in emotional contact can easily result in catching negative mind states! In the concentrated mind of a meditator, mental states become very concentrated and "single pointed", for example the mind becoming completely consumed by condemnation. Maybe the compassionate Buddha could afford to engage such a person but one such as myself, where the defilements are quite easily knocked out but also quite easily regrow, must be more careful, and quickly disengage!

Dogs would bark at me, or run up to me barking then look into my eyes, look terrified, and run away. As a LoH my life was very much in peril! To stop being a LoH, I had to break the hearts of the Angry Ghosts and beg them to stop believing "my" lies and to let go of their need for revenge or punishment, I had to do precisely the opposite of what I wanted to as a LoH which was to offer revenge and justice for the Angry Ghosts to make them happy.

Once I'd done what I needed to do to help the Angry Ghosts the LoH state faded, and immediately a driver pulled over and offered me a lift! If through mindfulness I catch it arising then I can counter it with Metta and Compassion. In fact I'm pretty much guaranteed to catch it arising now because it's so awful to "be in" that I'm very vigilant for the signs. The other preventative measure is to simply maintain a healthy balance of brightness in my mind, rather than carelessly letting it all radiate away. Of course it feels GOOD powerful to let loose with a radiant blast of goodness but that leaves me empty, in an emotionally vulnerable state.

So I'm learning to keep my mind full of goodness and radiate with a warm steady glow, rather than going through cycles. Maybe some of this understanding will be useful for others, in generating and maintaining positive mind states conductive to well-being and good meditation. Despite much of the stuff about nagas and devas being more or less in accord with the Pali Canon and other texts nagas and devas like these live in the realm of the Four Great Kings , immediately above the human realm , there are things that don't ring true in this account.

One is the odd part about the abbot kicking the guy out of the monastery and threatening to call the police. Another is his teaching dhamma to the devas. I've never heard of anyone doing that except the Buddha himself. Also, there's his supposedly incredible attainments in such a short time, even though he doesn't act like someone with high attainments jacking off surrounded by devas, for example My guess is the 7 weeks' intensive meditation has triggered an episode of hypomania, a mild form of mania. I've seen one other case like this in the past, where a guy with an encyclopedic knowledge of the Canon was challenging all-comers to debates, finally claiming he was a sotapanna and then an arahant.

His parents took him to see a doctor and he was diagnosed as having mania. Nice writing style, he should write science fiction novels, but I couldn't cope with reading through it all.

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He doesn't strike me as crazy, just seeking attention, but I don't know the context of the forum he's posting on. I haven't been down to Bodhinyanarama for a couple of months but I can ask if anyone remembers this guy when I do. They don't have intensive retreats there, at least not more than 10 days, it's more a case of taking part in the daily routine and getting time for meditation when you can, so the hypomania theory is unlikely. I think sometimes they like to reduce the number of lay people staying there at the beginning of the rains retreat if they have more inexperienced ones than they can handle, that could have happened, but I can't imagine Ajahn Tiradhammo threatening to call the police unless this guy got out of control.

I'm not sure why these people think that talking to nagas and devas should impress others, now if he were to have a conversation with santa claus or the tooth fairy then I'd be impressed. I suppose to give him the benefit of the doubt it could just be a case of wrong view, personifying his experience on the path with images of devas and nagas in the same way born again christians personify their experience by saying God told me this or that etc. The "Lord of he11" stuff near the end is best. He says when he was in LoH mode, he was so scary that only insane people would give him a lift. But how many insane people are driving around the roads of NZ?

I thought a lot of meditation in a short time in an unfamiliar environment might act as a trigger, but AFAIK, hypomania doesn't need a specific trigger. It could just be an absorbing interest in something spiritual. Presumably there's an underlying cause for hypomania, though, and religious visions are just one of the ways it manifests. The guy seems to be alone and doesn't mention his family. He would have been lucky to get 4 or 5 hours a day formal practice, other people can do hours for months on end without problems, but I suppose everybody is different.

I found his posts on BSWA, looking at his earlier posts before he went there many seem just as gushy and emotive as those after, I guess its just the way he sees the world and expresses himself. You get all sorts on these Buddhist forums. Normally I'd say as Buddhists we should be accepting and understanding of differences but I remember a few years ago a similar guy on a forum I was on gathered quite a following of followers on the internet. What I've read about demonic and heavenly mind states is that it's important to understand that these are dead ends along ones path to the summit.

The poster indicated that he was compelled to follow the Naga's orders or his mind would be destroyed. Without guidance the poster could end up spending the remainder of his life trapped in these realms. Not wanting to discount your feelings, these days, unless I have concrete evidence, I tend to accept peoples stories with an open mind. In the past, I've been on the receiving end of not being believed when sharing some personal experiences and know how it can feel. It's quite possible it's just a story but without first hand experience, isn't it better to keep an open mind on his experiences?

I have heard of them as being stages many may encounter on their journey, and these should be navigated without attachment as they can stop your progress. I think he needs therapy, sooner than later. And possibly a prescription for lithium, which in bipolars will minimise or eliminate 'LoH mode'.

Untreated could progress to borderline. I think it may also be possible that he's not mad but trapped in altered states due to the intensity of his practice. David A Cooper describes such states in detail in his book The Art of Meditation capturing similarities with the posters experience.

He explains that the trick is to let them come and go by simply observing them them but not to become attached. He adds that these stages help us grow and in many ways act as an internal guidance system in our journey to enlightenment. It has been quoted: It is not because evil thoughts come to us that we are condemned, but only because we make use of the evil thoughts.

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It can happen that from these thoughts we suffer shipwreck, but it can also happen that because of them we may be crowned. The posters problem is that he's become very much attached and in danger of not progressing beyond this level and even affecting his sanity. But is the author talking about experiences during meditation or outside meditation? It seems normal to experience visions during meditation but I don't think it's normal to experience them in everyday life. This guy seems to have constructed a whole fantasy world based partly on the supranatural elements of the Pali Canon - a cosmic psychodrama with himself at the centre adored and obeyed by inhabitants of other realms - and he's lost his ability to discern reality.

It's no wonder when you read about his unorthodox meditation, which is just letting go of everything - letting the mind do what it wants, letting the body do what it wants, and relying on the "heart" to do the right thing. The problem with that is there is no discipline.

The whole idea is to discipline the mind. Ajahn Brahm has a good story about when he couldn't get any results from his meditation - his mind was going off in all directions. So he made a deal with his mind that if it would behave he would give it one hour at the end of each session to do what it liked. So of course his mind didn't behave, hour after hour. Then when he gave it the one hour of freedom as promised, suddenly his mind became one-pointed and disciplined.

The real point of this is that the discipline works, but the result comes when you let go. I think this guy has misunderstood he's an admirer of Aj Brahm and thinks the trick is to let go all the time. The problem is this guy's mind has a weird rationalization for everything now, so he's not going to listen to anyone who says he's delusional. I thought the very same thing. That these states maybe experienced during meditation but the poster continues with them outside of meditation.

But then I thought that he, unlike us, is a full time practioner. Long sessions of meditation over a prolonged period can place one in a continuous altered state. You're correct that his methods are unorthodox, but that's because he's been left to practice unguided. You won't hear many disciplined travelors speak of of theirs as correct practice involves diminishing the ego. Here's the guy's answer when I suggested his special powers might be imaginary and he might want to see a doctor. Apparently this stuff has got into his imagination via Ajahn Man's biography:. Most beings labor under the delusion that their emotional world is private, I do not labor under that delusion, recognizing that emotional state is broadcast and recieved clearly and automatically via the senses including mind sense , body language is a good clear example.

That is the extent of my "special" powers. Everyone can and does do this, share other beings emotional states, they just don't know they are doing it and are unable to understand how their emotional state is being influenced nor how they influence the emotional state of others. I am NOT able to send out my citta to communicate with devas or anything of that sort and even if I could so so, I wouldn't do so.

I don't send out my body to meet other humans, I just let other humans come to me if they so wish. And my only motivation ever when teaching others, is to get rid of them, I just have to do so with kindness, gentleness and patience and I find the best way to do so is to teach everything I know and be honest about that - I don't know much. Then they leave me alone. Regarding communicating with Devas, in short; the Deva's come to ME, they use THEIR psychic powers to communicate with me, who knows why they do that but I think it's a combination of sympathy for me and admiration for my kindness towards others and courage in confroting my fears.

For example one Monk was plauged by conceit and arrogance so was visited by a Deva in the form of a giant Tiger! And the tiger stuck around until he overcame his fear, then left him. I am someone who was plauged by lonliness and fear of women and fear of the sensual pleasures I always ruthlessly pursued self-mortification and I got visited by a Deva in the form of a human woman, and she stuck around until I overcame my fear, then left me. If I hadn't had a Deva help me overcome my issues surrounding sensual pleasure, who knows how long I may have stumbled around seeking pain and suffering, or cautiously experimenting with sensual pleasures.

Thanks to experiencing a great deal of mental sensual pleasure, and seeing there's nothing there even at very refined levels, I now, with all my heart, pursue the middle way. The unseen beings do not bother me when my mind is balanced, they leave me to practise in solitude. The guy's account of meeting deva and naga was often mentioned by Thai ariya monks as well.

After listening to dhamma, these beings would prolong their lives in their realms longer, that's the reason why they like to communicate with monks with pure silas. The difference between him and Thai monks is that Thai monks were unlikely to tell others strangers, internet readers, for example but Thai readers have a chance to know their accounts when reading books, perhaps written by one of the monk's disciple. It is almost impossible for monks to tell show off these incredible stories. The account should be called patjattang personal, individual witness , which often results in argument, insult or quarrel.

People who argue, insult and quarrel will cause their own kamma unintentionally. A good point. Monks have rules to prevent them from mouthing off about these kinds of experiences, whether they may be real or imagined. It just doesn't sit right they way this guy is talking when a Monk wouldn't be allowed to, even in the unlikely event that it was real as he describes it. If he feels he needs help he should go and talk to someone he trusts, otherwise I don't think the BSWA should be providing a platform for him.

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